Lean manufacturing emphasizes the minimization of the amount of all the resources (including time) used in the various activities of the enterprise. The typical areas of hidden waste are over-production, waiting, transportation, over-processing, motion, excessive inventory, and defective units.
tco lean factory
they still had some shortcomings, since they provided little product variety and had rigid, top-down production processes that limited their ability to respond to increasingly changing customer demands. Toyota Motor Corporation realized the only way it could survive was to provide the Japanese consumer (and the global customer ever after) with the one thing American automotive manufacturers could not provide at that stage—product variety—all while maintaining as high a quality, short a lead time, and