Having moved beyond its original role as a standalone presentation layer to become a part of a larger technology stack, the portal is now considered part of a larger offering, be it in collaboration, vertical-specific applications, or application infrastructure and middleware.
But Not Self-Sufficient Previously, portals were merely Web super-sites offering a broad array of resources and services, such as (free) e-mail, forums/discussion groups, search engines, on-line shopping malls, news, white and yellow pages directories, and links to other sites. Now they are pervasive in the business world and used at the departmental and corporate levels. The major, general-purpose Web portals are still Yahoo! , Excite , MSN , and America On-Line (AOL) and are the Web equivalent of the