Having moved beyond its original role as a standalone presentation layer to become a part of a larger technology stack, the portal is now considered part of a larger offering, be it in collaboration, vertical-specific applications, or application infrastructure and middleware.
other services except public administration
directories, and links to other sites. Now they are pervasive in the business world and used at the departmental and corporate levels. The major, general-purpose Web portals are still Yahoo! , Excite , MSN , and America On-Line (AOL) and are the Web equivalent of the original, pre-Web on-line services such as CompuServe and AOL, which initially was only an Internet provider. Now most of these traditional search engines have transformed themselves into Web portals to attract and keep a larger audience.