Lean manufacturing emphasizes the minimization of the amount of all the resources (including time) used in the various activities of the enterprise. The typical areas of hidden waste are over-production, waiting, transportation, over-processing, motion, excessive inventory, and defective units.
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increased interest in the lean manufacturing support philosophy. To understand this trend, one need look no further than the enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems of the 1990s, which, unfortunately, are cognitive (i.e., sending well-devised plans of mice and men , which, without feedback from the real-world would often go astray ) rather than reflexive in nature. In addition, there is a host of other well-publicized MRP-related problems, such as complex bills of material (BOMs), inefficient