While lean/flow leverages practices to stay ahead of actual demand, traditional approaches better coordinate secondary, back-office systems like accounting and HR. Moreover, flow should be a company-wide strategy that impacts more than manufacturing.
also caters to both JIT that is used for build-to-order or final assembly manufacturing, and to lean manufacturing, which is suitable for build-to-demand pull for finished and component items. Namely, most companies will still use MRP to ascertain longer-term dependent demand (i.e., based on forecasts), but replenishment will be based on independent demand (i.e., actual customer orders), with closely managed inventory buffers. Customer demand cannot be predicted months ahead, since nothing is that