For many companies, traditional business intelligence (BI) software is costly and resource-intensive. So are open source alternatives that require significant configuration and integration. In contrast, software-as-a-service (SaaS) solutions can reduce the cost of a BI deployment by providing automation and pre-integration. Compare total cost of ownership (TCO) for traditional, open source, and SaaS BI solutions.
generality comes at a cost of complexity, redundancy and lack of integration. All schemas must be independently defined in the ETL tool, separate from the downstream BI tool. This results in redundant metadata and significantly increased complexity. Such ETL tools have their own metadata, developer model, methods, syntax, libraries, etc. They require additional training and expertise. Moreover, redundancy creates greatly increased risk when modifying elements as all downstream impacts must be analyzed